Corvette Glossary Of Terms
Gas Guzzler Tax
The National Energy Act: Energy Tax Act of 1978 (US), or the Gas Guzzler Tax, imposed set tax penalties on car manufacturers who fail to meet the minimum fuel economy level of 22.5 mpg-US (10.5 L/100 km; 27.0 mpg-imp) in the United States. This does not include minivans, sport utility vehicles or pick-up trucks.
It is intended to discourage the production and purchase of fuel inefficient vehicles. In determining the tax, the fuel economy figures used are different from the fuel economy values provided in the Fuel Economy Guide. This tax is collected by the IRS and paid by the manufacturer or importer after production has ended for the model year. It is based on the total number of gas guzzler vehicles which were introduced into commerce in the United States.
The amount of the tax paid by manufacturer is displayed on the vehicle’s fuel economy label on the window sticker of new cars. Gas Guzzler Tax content courtesy of Wikipedia. Corvsport Page References:1986 Overview.
Oliver Benjamin Gavin (born 29 September 1972 in Huntingdon), is a GM factory racing driver from the United Kingdom. He was raised in the village of Felmersham, Bedfordshire. He attended the local Primary school, Pinchmill. At age nine he attended Lincroft Middle School and then took his GCSEs and A-levels at Sharnbrook Upper School and Community College.
Gavin was introduced to motor racing through the traditional karting route. After finishing as runner-up in the 1993 British F3 series to Kelvin Burt, Gavin graduated to Formula 3000 in 1994 with Omegaland. He failed to score any points in the five races he contested, and subsequently opted to drop back down to F3 for 1995. He managed to overcome rival Ralph Firman in the final round to snatch the title.
Currently, Oliver Gavin is driving for Corvette Racing in the United SportsCar Racing Series with codriver Tommy Milner. The team previously drove together in the American Le Mans Series, which had its final season in 2013.
His previous work included being the test driver for the ill-fated mid-90s Pacific Grand Prix team. At one point he nearly earned the opportunity of a race drive with Pacific, but he was not granted the required FIA Super Licence. Gavin also drove the safety car from 1997 to 1999 for the Formula One championship. He has won his class in Le Mans on a number of occasions. He lives in a village east of Northampton with his wife, Helen, and their three children. Corvsport Page References: 2008 Overview.
General Motors Company
An American multinational automaker based in Detroit, Michigan and the world’s second largest automaker. With its global headquarters in Detroit, GM employs 209,000 people in every major region of the world and does business in some 157 countries. General Motors produces cars and trucks in 31 countries, and sells and services these vehicles through the following divisions: Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Opel, Vauxhall, and Holden. GM’s OnStar subsidiary provides vehicle safety, security and information services.
The company was first founded on September 16, 1908, in Flint, Michigan, as a holding company for Buick, then controlled by William C. Durant. GM’s co-founder was Charles Stewart Mott, whose carriage company was merged into Buick prior to GM’s creation. Over the years Mott became the largest single stockholder in GM and spent his life with his Mott Foundation, whose benefit was shone on the city of Flint, his adopted home. It acquired Oldsmobile later that year. In 1909, Durant brought in Cadillac, Elmore, Oakland and several others. Also in 1909, GM acquired the Reliance Motor Truck Company of Owosso, Michigan, and the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company of Pontiac, Michigan, the predecessors of GMC Truck. Durant lost control of GM in 1910 to a bankers’ trust, because of the large amount of debt taken on in its acquisitions coupled with a collapse in new vehicle sales.
The next year, Durant started the Chevrolet Motor Car Company and through this he secretly purchased a controlling interest in GM. Durant took back control of the company after one of the most dramatic proxy wars in American business history. Durant then reorganized General Motors Company into General Motors Corporation in 1916. Shortly after, he again lost control, this time for good, after the new vehicle market collapsed. Alfred P. Sloan was picked to take charge of the corporation and led it to its post-war global dominance. This unprecedented growth of GM would last into the early 1980s when it employed 349,000 workers and operated 150 assembly plants.
GM led global sales for 77 consecutive years from 1931 through 2007, longer than any other automaker. In 2008 and 2009, GM has ranked as the second largest global automaker by sales.
In North America, GM products focus primarily on its four core divisions — Chevrolet, Cadillac, Buick, and GMC. The Buick brand is especially strong in China, led by the Buick Excelle subcompact. The company manufactures most of its China market vehicles locally through Shanghai GM, a joint venture with the Chinese company SAIC, which was created on March 25, 1997. Since 1983 GM and Al-Monsour Automotive Company has founded the General Motors Egypt which is currently the only manufacturer of traditional GM branded vehicles in Egypt.
GM has participated over the years in the World Touring Car Championship (WTCC), Le Mans, NASCAR, SCCA, and many other world venues. GM’s engines were highly successful in the Indy Racing League (IRL) throughout the 1990s, winning many races in the small V-8 class. GM has also done much work in the development of electronics for GM auto racing. An unmodified Aurora V-8 in the Aerotech, captured 47 world records, including the record for speed endurance in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America. Recently, the Cadillac V-Series has entered motorsports racing. GM has also used many cars in the American racing series NASCAR. Currently the Chevrolet Impala is the only entry in the series but in the past the Pontiac Grand Prix, Buick Regal, Oldsmobile Cutlass, Chevrolet Lumina, Chevrolet Malibu, and the Chevrolet Monte Carlo were also used.
In Australia, there is the V8 Supercar Championship which is battled out by the two main rivals of (GM) Holden and Ford. The current Holden Racing Team cars are based on the Holden Commodore and run a 5.0-litre V8-cylinder engine producing 635 bhp (474 kW). These cars have a top speed of 318 km/h (198 mph) and run 0–100 km/h in 3.8 seconds. The Holden Racing Team is Australia’s most successful team in Australian Touring Car History. In 2006 & 2007, the Drivers championship was won by the very closely linked HSV Dealer Team. General Motors content courtesy of Wikipedia.. Corvsport Page References: C1 Overview, 1953 Overview, 1954 Overview, 1955 Overview, 1956 Overview, 1957 Overview, 1958 Overview, 1959 Overview, 1960 Overview, 1961 Overview, 1962 Overview, C2 Overview, 1963 Overview, 1964 Overview, 1965 Overview, 1966 Overview, 1967 Overview, C3 Overview, 1968 Overview, 1969 Overview, 1970 Overview, 1971 Overview, 1972 Overview, 1973 Overview, 1974 Overview, 1975 Overview, 1976 Overview, 1977 Overview, 1978 Overview, 1979 Overview, 1980 Overview, 1981 Overview, 1982 Overview, C4 Overview, 1984 Overview, 1985 Overview, 1986 Overview, 1987 Overview, 1988 Overview, 1989 Overview, 1990 Overview, 1991 Overview, 1992 Overview, 1993 Overview, 1994 Overview, 1995 Overview, 1996 Overview, C5 Overview, 1997 Overview, 1998 Overview, 1999 Overview, 2000 Overview, 2001 Overview, 2002 Overview, 2003 Overview, 2004 Overview, C6 Overview, 2005 Overview, 2006, Overview, 2007 Overview, 2008 Overview, 2009 Overview, 2010 Overview, 2011 Overview
General Motors Design Center/Design Studios
The first and largest global automotive OEM design function, General Motors has a network of 10 Design Centers in eight countries around the world. More than 1,500 men and women are responsible for the design development of every GM concept and production car and truck globally.
The Design Centers are located in the United States, Germany, England, Korea, China, Australia, Brazil and India, and GM Design employees represent more than 99 percent of all countries across the globe. GM Design is led by Ed Welburn, vice president, Global Design. Welburn is only the sixth Design leader in GM history, and the first to lead all of the company’s Global Design Centers. Content Courtesy of GM Heritage Center. Corvsport Page References: C5 Overview.
General Motors Technical Center
The GM Technical Center is a General Motors facility in Warren, Michigan. The campus is home to 16,000 GM engineers, designers, and technicians and has been the center of the company’s engineering effort since its inauguration in 1956.
The “Tech Center” was designed by architect Eero Saarinen, with construction beginning in 1949. The campus was completed in 1955 and ceremonially opened by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on May 16, 1956. The facility cost the company approximately US$100,000,000 at the time. The American Institute of Architects honored it in 1986 as the most outstanding architectural project of its era.
The Tech Center sprawls across 330 acres (1.3 km2) of land and includes 11 miles (18 km) of roads and 1.1 miles (1.8 km) of tunnels. It includes 25 main buildings and numerous additional structures including a water tower and 22-acre (89,000 m2) lake. Content Courtesy of Wikipedia. Corvsport Page References: C5 Overview.
Geneva Motor Show
An annual auto show held in March in the Swiss city of Geneva. The show is hosted at the Geneva Palexpo, a convention center located next to the Geneva Cointrin International Airport. The Salon is organized by the Organization Internationale des Constructeurs d’Automobiles, and is considered an important major international auto show. Geneva Motor Show content courtesy of Wikipedia. Corvsport Page References: 1989 Overview.
Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP)
Also known as glass fiber-reinforced plastic (GFRP), is a composite material made of a plastic matrix reinforced by fine fibers made of glass. It is also known as GFK (for Glasfaserverstärkter Kunststoff), or simply by the name of the reinforcing fibers themselves: fiberglass. GRP is a lightweight, strong material with very many uses, including boats, automobiles, water tanks, roofing, pipes and cladding. The plastic matrix may be epoxy, a thermosetting plastic (most often polyester or vinyl ester) or thermoplastic.
GRP was used in the construction of bodies for automobiles, such as the Chevrolet Corvette and Studebaker Avanti, as well as the underbody of the DMC-12 Delorean. GRP content courtesy of Wikipedia. Corvsport Page References: C1 Overview.
GM 4L60E Automatic Transmission
The 4L60-E (and similar 4L65-E) is a series of automatic transmissions from General Motors. Designed for longitudinal engine configurations, the series includes 4 forward gears. It is an evolution of the Turbo-Hydramatic 700R4, originally produced in 1982. The 4L60-E and 4L65-E are built at Toledo Transmission in Toledo, Ohio and have also been built at Romulus Transmission in Romulus, Michigan and Ramos Arizpe, Mexico.
The two transmissions are differentiated mainly by the number of pinion gears in their planetary gearsets: The 4L60-E has four, while the heavy-duty 4L65-E has five. Other elements of the 4L60-E design were strengthened when the 4L65-E was introduced, but these were incorporated into the 4L60-E in 2002.
The THM700 was renamed “4L60” (RPO M30) following the new General Motors naming convention, when the electronic version, 4L60-E, was phased in. This happened in 1993 for trucks, vans, and SUVs, and 1994 for rear wheel drive passenger cars. 1993-95 production 4L60-Es look similar to non-electronic 4L60s (including the 700R4) with the absence of a governor and throttle valve cable; an electronic plug was positioned where the TV cable once stood. Around 1996, a bolt-on bell housing was phased in (along with a six-bolt tailhousing) when the transmission was bolted behind an inline four cylinder or the Vortec engine family.
The 4L60-E is rated to handle up to 360 ft·lb (488 N·m) of torque.
The 4L60-E family of transmissions use 2 shift solenoids, initially called Shift Solenoid A & Shift Solenoid B, later changed to comply with OBD II (On Board Diagnostics revision 2) regulations to 1-2 Shift Solenoid & 2-3 Shift solenoid. By activating and deactivating the solenoids in a predetermined pattern by the PCM, 4 specific gear ratios can be achieved. Content Courtesy of Wikipedia. Corvsport Page References: C5 Overview.
GM 4L65E Automatic Transmission
An updated 4L60-E, the 4L65-E (RPO M32), was phased in the 2001 model year when coupled behind the 6.0 Vortec. Five-pinion front and rear planetaries, along with an additional 3/4 clutch allowing 7 clutches in the input housing and induction hardened input shaft assembly, were improved to withstand up to 380 ft·lbf (515 N·m) of torque. Corvsport Page References: 2005 Overview.
The Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company was founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling. Goodyear manufactures tires for automobiles, commercial trucks, light trucks, SUVs, race cars, airplanes, and heavy earth-mover machinery.
Although the company was not connected with him, it was named in honor of Charles Goodyear. Goodyear invented vulcanized rubber in 1839. The first Goodyear Tires became popular because they were easily detachable and low maintenance.
Goodyear is very famous throughout the world because of the Goodyear blimp. The first Goodyear blimp flew in 1925. Today it is one of the most recognizable advertising icons in America. The company is the most successful tire supplier in Formula One history, with more starts, wins, and constructors’ championships than any other tire supplier. They pulled out of the sport after the 1998 season. Goodyear content courtesy of Wikipedia.
Goodyear Eagle F1 GS Tire
The Eagle F1 GS is Goodyear’s Ultra High Performance Summer tire developed for sports cars, muscle cars and sport trucks. The Eagle F1 GS is designed to blend wet and dry traction with treadwear. However like all summer tires, Eagle F1 GS tires are not intended to be driven in near-freezing temperatures, through snow or on ice.
The Eagle F1 GS molds Goodyear’s AATRAX tread compound into a directional tread design. Large shoulder blocks, continuous center ribs and a multi-radius profile offer confident steering and uniform wear while race-bred, dual Aquachannels help provide efficient water evacuation to promote wet traction.
The tire’s internal structure includes twin steel belts reinforced by spirally wound nylon overlays and an angled ply carcass combine disturbance-free operation with high-speed durability.
Goodyear Eagle GS-C Tire
The Eagle GS-C EMT (Extended Mobility Technology) is Goodyear’s Ultra High Performance Summer self-supporting run-flat tire developed for C4 Corvette coupes and convertibles. Featuring Goodyear’s Extended Mobility Technology, these tires provide temporary mobility even after a puncture results in complete loss of air pressure. The Eagle GS-C EMT is designed to blend wet and dry traction, however like all summer tires, it is not intended to be driven in near-freezing temperatures, through snow or on ice. Corvsport Page References: C4 Overview, 1984 Overview, 1985 Overview, 1986 Overview, 1987 Overview, 1988 Overview, 1989 Overview, 1990 Overview, 1991 Overview, 1992 Overview, 1993 Overview, 1994 Overview, 1995 Overview, 1996 Overview
The Gymkhana Suspension was offered on the the Chevrolet Corvette from 1975 to 1982 as an option code RPO FE7 and included: stronger/reinforced front springs and shocks, stronger/reinforced rear (7 leaf) springs and matching shocks, a larger front stabilizer bar (1 3/32″) with H/D rubber mounting hardware, and a larger rear stabilizer bar (7/16′) with H/D rubber mounting hardware.