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Corvette Glossary Of Terms – C

corvette z06

Corvette Glossary Of Terms



Cadillac XLR

The XLR was a retractable hardtop convertible marketed by the Cadillac division of General Motors, assembled in Bowling Green, Kentucky. Intended to be Cadillac’s flagship sports car, the XLR was based on the Chevrolet Corvette’s Y platform. The XLR featured its own unique styling, interior, and suspension, and power-retractable aluminum hardtop, along with the Cadillac Northstar engine.  The XLR ended production after the 2009 model year. Content courtesy of Wikipedia. Corvette Reference Pages: C6 Overview.

Cafaro, John

The Chief Designer of the Corvette C5, John Cafaro was responsible for leading the design initiatives for the Fifth Generation Corvette coupe and convertible as well as all production Corvette design from 1991 to the present. From 1992 to 1999, John worked on the C5-R Corvette race program, managing all bodywork design and graphic design packages for the Chevrolet Raceshop and GM Motorsports.

As a result of John’s many accomplishments at General Motors Design, his creations and works have received accolades for the Motor Trend Car of the Year – 1984 Corvette, Autoweek Magazine Award – 1997 Corvette Coupe, North American International Auto Show, Car of the Year – 1998 Corvette Convertible and Motor Trend Car of the Year – 1998 Corvette Convertible. John has been an avid Corvette enthusiast since first laying eyes on the Mako Shark on exhibit in New York in 1965. The Mako Shark inspired Cafaro to become one of the most prominent automobile designers at General Motors.

John Cafaro is a Corvette Hall of Fame Inductee. Information courtesy of National Corvette Museum. Corvette Reference Pages: 1992 CorvetteC5 Overview.

California Institute of Technology (Caltech)

A private research university located in Pasadena, California, United States. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphases on science and engineering. Its 124-acre (50 ha) primary campus is located approximately 11 mi (18 km) northeast of downtown Los Angeles. Content courtesy of Wikipedia. Corvette Reference Pages: C2 Overview

Calipers (Disc Brakes)

The brake caliper is the assembly which houses the brake pads and pistons. The pistons are usually made of aluminum or chrome-plated steel. There are two types of calipers: floating or fixed. A fixed caliper does not move relative to the disc and is, thus, less tolerant of disc imperfections. It uses one or more single or pairs of opposing pistons to clamp from each side of the disc, and is more complex and expensive than a floating caliper. A floating caliper (also called a “sliding caliper”) moves with respect to the disc, along a line parallel to the axis of rotation of the disc; a piston on one side of the disc pushes the inner brake pad until it makes contact with the braking surface, then pulls the caliper body with the outer brake pad so pressure is applied to both sides of the disc. Information courtesy of Wikipedia.


An engine design company who is notable for their modification of Chevrolet cars, the Corvette sport cars in particular, most especially for their twin-turbo kit that became a dealer option and for their record breaking Corvette Sledgehammer car.

In 1973, Reeves Callaway, not in a financial position to be able to start his dream of embarking on a racing career, did what many aspiring drivers do- Callaway went to work as a driving instructor for Bob Bondurant’s racing school. While using the newly launched BMW 320i as a school car, he became familiar with its intricacies and deficiencies, he later took hold of one of its cars to his garage in Old Lyme with the intention of tuning for more power.

As a result, Callaway constructed and installed his first prototype turbocharger system and offered Car and Driver journalist Don Sherman to drive the car resulting in a one-page article, giving the modified car great acclaim.  Realizing its commercial potential, Sherman told Callaway that he could make turbocharger kits available to the BMW community but he didn’t even have the equipment to manufacture the components including a drill press.  As business began to arrive, Callaway formed Callaway Cars, Inc in 1977.

Over the years, Callaway developed turbocharger kits for BMW, Volkswagen, Porsche, Audi and Mercedes-Benz. He also developed the HH IndyCar V8 engine and later a twin turbo kit for the Alfa Romeo GTV6. The company would become famous in 1987 when they developed a twin turbo kits for the Corvette. As they were dealer options, Callaway sold 500 of them over a period of five years.

Callaway was also commissioned by Aston Martin to build the 5.3L V8 engine from the newly launched Virage for its AMR1 Group C racer.

Callaway Cars headquarters is in Old Lyme, Connecticut with West Coast facilities in Orange County, California, and European facilities in Leingarten, Germany. Its current project is the C16, a supercharged C6 Corvette. Content courtesy of Wikipedia.

Callaway Twin Turbo Corvette

The special edition Callaway Twin Turbo Corvette was available from 1987 to 1991 as Regular Production Option (RPO) B2K and could be ordered from select dealers in the US. Corvette orders with the B2K option selected were shipped to Callaway Cars in Old Lyme, Connecticut, for the Twin Turbo conversion directly from the Bowling Green assembly plant.

Once converted and tested, the Callaway Corvettes were then shipped to their ordering dealers for final delivery to their respective owners. Dealer repairs of the Callaway Twin Turbo Corvettes were covered by the standard GM 12 mo./12,000 mile warranty, with Callaway Cars, Inc. reimbursing dealers for time and materials on repairs to the added components. This was the only time where GM has allowed a factory orderable non-GM performance enhancement on the Corvette.

The ultimate Callaway Twin Turbo Corvette is known as the Sledgehammer Corvette. Until 1999, the Callaway Sledgehammer Corvette held the World Street Legal speed record of 254.76 mph (410.00 km/h). It is an emissions compliant, street legal vehicle, with all the creature comforts like Air Conditioning, Radio, etc. that you would find in any production street Corvette. Built using production chassis 1988-051, it achieved its World Record Title in November 1988 at the Ohio Transportation Research Center (TRC). In addition to the engine performance improvements, the Sledgehammer Corvette used modified body panels to reduce drag and improve stability. Content courtesy of Wikipedia. Corvette Reference Pages: 1987 Corvette1988 Corvette.

Camber angle

The angle made by the wheels of a vehicle; specifically, it is the angle between the vertical axis of the wheels used for steering and the vertical axis of the vehicle when viewed from the front or rear. It is used in the design of steering and suspension. If the top of the wheel is farther out than the bottom (that is, away from the axle), it is called positive camber; if the bottom of the wheel is farther out than the top, it is called negative camber. Content courtesy of Wikipedia.


A shaft to which a cam is fastened or of which a cam forms an integral part.  In internal combustion engines with pistons, the camshaft is used to operate poppet valves. It then consists of a cylindrical rod running the length of the cylinder bank with a number of oblong lobes protruding from it, one for each valve. The cams force the valves open by pressing on the valve, or on some intermediate mechanism as they rotate. Content courtesy of Wikipedia.


The Canadian-American Challenge Cup or Can-Am, was an SCCA/CASC sports car racing series from 1966 to 1986.

Carbon Fiber

Also known as graphite fiber, carbon graphite or CF, is a material consisting of fibers about 5–10 μm in diameter and composed mostly of carbon atoms. The carbon atoms are bonded together in crystals that are more or less aligned parallel to the long axis of the fiber. The crystal alignment gives the fiber high strength-to-volume ratio (makes it strong for its size). Several thousand carbon fibers are twisted together to form a yarn, which may be used by itself or woven into a fabric.

The properties of carbon fibers, such as high flexibility, high tensile strength, low weight, high resistance, high temperature tolerance and low thermal expansion, make them very popular in aerospace, civil engineering, military, and motorsports, along with other competition sports. However, they are relatively expensive when compared to similar fibers, such as glass fibers or plastic fibers.

Carbon fibers are usually combined with other materials to form a composite. When combined with a plastic resin and wound or molded it forms carbon fiber reinforced plastic (often referred to also as carbon fiber) which is a very high strength-to-weight, extremely rigid, although somewhat brittle material. However, carbon fibers are also composed with other materials, such as with graphite to form carbon-carbon composites, which have a very high heat tolerance. Content courtesy of Wikipedia. Corvette Reference Pages: 2004 Overview.

Caster (or castor angle)

The angular displacement from the vertical axis of the suspension of a steered wheel in a car, bicycle or other vehicle, measured in the longitudinal direction. It is the angle between the pivot line (in a car – an imaginary line that runs through the center of the upper ball joint to the center of the lower ball joint) and vertical. Car racers sometimes adjust caster angle to optimize their car’s handling characteristics in particular driving situations. Content courtesy of Wikipedia.

Catalytic Converter

A device used to reduce the array of emissions from an internal combustion engine.  A catalytic converter works by using a catalyst to stimulate a chemical reaction in which the by-products of combustion are converted to produce less harmful and/or inert substances, such as the very poisonous carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide.  In automobiles, this typically results in 90% conversion of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides into less harmful gases. Content courtesy of Wikipedia.

CERV (Chevrolet Engineering Research Vehicle)

A series of Chevrolet experimental cars. Chevrolet Staff engineer, designer, and race car driver Zora Arkus-Duntov started development of the CERV I in 1959, and began work on the CERV II in 1963. Chevrolet Chief Engineer Don Runkle and Lotus’ Tony Rudd discussed creating a new show car to demonstrate their engineering expertise in 1985; It would become the CERV III. Corvette chief engineer Dave Hill unveiled the CERV IV in 1993, a test vehicle for the 1997 C5 Corvette.


Zora Arkus-Duntov, Chevrolet Staff engineer, designer, and race car driver started development of the “CERV I” (Chevrolet Experimental Racing Vehicle) in 1959, which was unveiled to the public at the Riverside International Raceway November 1960, under the name “CERV I” (Chevrolet Experimental Research Vehicle).


Zora Arkus-Duntov began work on the CERV II in 1963, which was completed in 1964. The original plan was to build six cars, three for competition and three spares. The body was styled by Larry Shinoda and Tom Lapine.

Cerv III

The project would become the CERV III (Corporate Engineering Research Vehicle III) was first unveiled in Detroit Automobile Show in January 1986 as the Corvette Indy prototype car. The vehicle featured 4-wheel drive, 4-wheel steering, and CRT cockpit screens. The vehicle was styled by Chief of Chevy III Studio, Jerry Palmer.

In January 1990, CERV III (No. 3) made its debut at the International Auto Show in Detroit. The car’s mid-engine V-8 is a 5.7-liter 32-valve, dual-overhead cam LT5, with twin turbos and internal modifications, giving it 650 hp (485 kW), 655 lb·ft (888 N·m)- torque, and a top speed of 225 mph (362 km/h). The car was made of carbon fiber with a fiberglass-finish coating, with estimated price of $300k-400k. Other standard features include computer-controlled active suspension system, ABS braking and traction control, six-speed automatic transmission, all-wheel-drive and four-wheel steering.

Cerv IV

On December 1992, General Motors’ Corvette group secretly contracts with TDM, Inc. to build a test car of the 1997 Corvette, which was officially called CERV-4 (Corvette Engineering Research Vehicle). Corvette directed the project, with Chevrolet paying for it. General Motors management was not told about it, for fear of cancellation. It was unveiled by Corvette chief engineer Dave Hill on 1993-5-3 at the General Motors Technical Center in Warren. The build cost was about US $1.2 million.


It was a test mule vehicle for the upcoming Chevrolet Corvette C5. It includes 5.7L LT-1 V8 engine, 6-speed manual transmission axle, 4-wheel disc brakes, front 255/45ZR17 and rear 285/40ZR17 tires on BBS basket wheels, side curtains, no side window glass, and a modified production interior.  The vehicle was sold in 2009 Barrett-Jackson Palm Beach auction for $34000 (before buyer premium).  This car is currently on display in Effingham, IL at the MY Garage Museum owned by Michael and Blake Yager. Content courtesy of Wikipedia. Corvette Reference Pages: C5 Overview

Check Digit

The Check Digit is located in a Vehicle Identification Number (VIN). To determine the check digit (9th digit) of your car’s Vehicle Identification Number, follow these steps:

  • Take the VIN and re-assign any letters in the VIN with a set value (number) as follows:

A = 1, B = 2, C = 3, D = 4, E = 5, F = 6, G = 7, H = 8,
J = 1, K = 2, L = 3, M = 4, N = 5, O = 6, P = 7, R = 9,
       S = 2, T = 3, U = 4, V = 5, W = 6, X = 7, Y = 8, Z = 9
Any numbers in the VIN remain the same (not replaced) and thus you have a 17 digit number.

  • Multiply each of the 17 digits by a set “weight” (multiplier). The weight applied to each digit is as follows:

1st = 8, 2nd = 7, 3rd = 6, 4th = 5, 5th = 4, 6th = 3, 7th = 2, 8th = 10, 9th = 0 (check digit),
10th = 9, 11th = 8, 12th = 7, 13th = 6, 14th = 5, 15th = 4, 16th = 3, 17th = 2
After multiplying each VIN digit by the associated weight – add up the results of all 17 products. Then divide by 11 and
the remainder is your check digit.

  • If the remainder is the digits 0 thru 9,  then your Check Digit is the same numeric value.  If the remainder is 10, then the check digit is ‘X’.

Here’s an example: VIN = 1G1BL52P7TR115520 (note ‘7’ is the check digit)
VIN: 1 G 1 B L 5 2 P 7 T R 1 1 5 5 2 0
Assigned Values: 1 7 1 2 3 5 2 7 7 3 9 1 1 5 5 2 0
Multiplier: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 10 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Add the products: (1 X 8) + (7 X 7) + (1 X 6) … (0 X 2) = 337
Divide 337 by 11 which gives you 30, and a remainder of 7 which is the same as the 9th digit of the VIN.

Cherry, Wayne K

Born 1937 she is a noted American car designer is responsible for the conversion of Opel-style lines into the British Vauxhall or American counterparts for General Motors. In an age of high profile ‘designer’ names in the car industry, Cherry is hardly a household name, yet his designs spanning five decades easily count among the most influential in the industry.
Cherry joined GM in 1962 upon graduation from the Art Center design school, initially working at GM in the US as an Associate Creative Designer. At this time, as a young designer, he was a member of the teams that designed the original Chevrolet Camaro/Pontiac Firebird twins, and the Oldsmobile Toronado, both considered to be modern classics. He was a contemporary colleague of John De Lorean, whose idea it was to do the Pontiac GTO at this time, also considered a modern classic. In 1965, he transferred to Vauxhall Motors in the UK, GM’s UK operations.

Cherry returned to GM’s US Chevrolet operations in 1991, though his work in Europe continued in parallel. His designs at this time included models for Chevrolet, Geo, Saturn and others. In 1992 Cherry became vice president of design for GM worldwide, the fifth head of design in GM’s history. His responsibility covered all of GM’s North American brands – Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, Chevrolet Truck, GMC, Hummer, Pontiac and Saturn. His work in Europe clearly influenced new GM designs, which started to become much more “European” in flavor than earlier US-designed vehicles.[4] Designs such as the Pontiac Solstice, Cadillac Sixteen and so forth were all produced under Cherry’s directorship. Also the new Cadillac vision, the H2 Hummer, the Chevy SSR, as well as over 100 concept vehicles which were developed. Cherry retired in 2004  (Biographical Content courtesy of Wikipedia. Corvsport Page References: C5 Overview.

Chevrolet (Chevy)

A brand of vehicles produced by General Motors Company (GM). Founded by Louis Chevrolet and ousted GM founder William C. Durant on November 8, 1911, Chevrolet was acquired by General Motors in 1917. Chevrolet was positioned by Alfred Sloan to sell a lineup of mainstream vehicles to directly compete against Henry Ford’s “Model T” in the 1920s, and continues to hold its position as General Motors’ highest-selling brand to the present day, with “Chevrolet” or “Chevy” being at times synonymous with GM.  In North America, Chevrolet offers a full range of automobiles, from subcompact cars to medium-duty commercial trucks.

Chevy was founded by Louis Chevrolet, a racecar driver and son of Cooper Chevrolet, William Little and Dr. Edwin R Campbell, William Durant’s son-in-law. William Durant (founder of General Motors) had been forced from the management of GM in 1910. Durant took over the Flint Wagon Works, incorporating both the Mason and Little companies. Chevrolet Motor Car Co. was incorporated in November 1911. He wanted to use Chevrolet’s name as a racer to rebuild his own reputation. As head of Buick Motor Company, prior to founding GM, Durant had hired Chevrolet to drive Buicks in promotional races.  Actual design work for the first Chevy, the costly Series C Classic Six was drawn up by Etienne Planche, following the instructions of his old friend Louis. The first C prototype was ready months before Chevrolet was actually incorporated.

Chevrolet first used its “Bowtie emblem” logo in 1913. It is said to have been designed from wallpaper Durant once saw in a French hotel. More recent research by historian Ken Kaufmann presents a compelling case that the logo is based upon a logo for “Coalettes” Others claim that the design was a stylized Swiss cross, in honor of the homeland of Chevrolet’s parents.

In control, Durant was in the process of setting up Chevrolet production facilities in Toronto, Canada. Later that year, during a luncheon meeting in New York with “Colonel Sam” McLaughlin, whose McLaughlin Motor Car Company manufactured McLaughlin-Buick cars, it was agreed that Chevrolets with McLaughlin-designed bodies would be added to the Canadian company’s product line. Three years later, the two operations (Chevrolet was by then a part of GM in the United States) were bought by GM to become General Motors of Canada Ltd.

By 1916, Chevrolet was profitable enough to allow Durant to buy a majority of shares in GM. After the deal was completed in 1917, Durant was president of General Motors, and Chevrolet was merged into GM, becoming a separate division. In the 1918 model year, Chevrolet introduced the Model D, a V8-powered model in four-passenger roadster and five-passenger touring models. It also started production of an overhead valve in-line six. Most cars of the era had only low compression flat head engines. These cars had 288in3 55 hp (41 kW) engines with Zenith carburetors and three-speed transmissions.

Chevrolet continued into the 1920s, 1930s, and 1940s competing with the Ford brand, and after the fairly new Chrysler Corporation formed Plymouth in 1928, Plymouth, Ford, and Chevrolet were known as the “Low-priced three”

Chevrolet had a great influence on the American automobile market during the 1950s and 1960s. In 1953, Chevrolet, under the guidance of General Motors Art and Colour Division, developed the first Chevy Corvette, which gave birth to one of the most successful sports car lines of all time. In 1957, Chevy made their first fuel injected engine. In 1963, one out of every ten cars sold in the United States was a Chevrolet.

The basic Chevrolet small-block V-8 design has remained in continuous production since its debut in 1955, longer than any other mass-produced engine in the world, although current versions share few if any parts interchangeable with the original. Descendants of the basic small-block OHV V-8 design platform in production today have been much modified with advances such as aluminum block and heads, electronic engine management and sequential port fuel injection, to name but a few. Descendants of the small-block V-8 in the form of the LT V-8s, and had influence in the design of the LS V-8s, both of which are still installed in Chevrolet vehicles. The original small-block design is simplistic compared to the overhead-cam V-8 that Ford Motor Company used and continues to use in its line of larger cars and light trucks. Depending on the vehicle type, Chevrolet V-8s are built in displacements from 4.3 to 9.4 Litres with outputs ranging from 110 horsepower (82 kW) to 720 horsepower (540 kW) as installed at the factory. The engine design has also been used over the years in GM products built and sold under the Pontiac, Oldsmobile, Buick, Opel (Germany), Hummer and Holden (Australia) nameplates.  (Chevrolet content courtesy of Wikipedia.)

Corvsport Page References: C1 Overview1953 Overview1954 Overview1955 Overview1956 Overview1957 Overview1958 Overview1959 Overview1960 Overview1961 Overview1962 OverviewC2 Overview1963 Overview1964 Overview, 1965 Overview1966 Overview, 1967 OverviewC3 Overview1968 Overview1969 Overview, 1970 Overview, 1971 Overview, 1972 Overview, 1973 Overview1974 Overview, 1975 Overview, 1976 Overview, 1977 Overview, 1978 Overview, 1979 Overview, 1980 Overview, 1981 Overview, 1982 Overview, C4 Overview1984 Overview, 1985 Overview, 1986 Overview, 1987 Overview1988 Overview1989 Overview, 1990 Overview, 1991 Overview1992 Overview, 1993 Overview, 1994 Overview, 1995 Overview, 1996 Overview, C5 Overview1997 Overview, 1998 Overview, 1999 Overview, 2000 Overview, 2001 Overview, 2002 Overview, 2003 Overview2004 OverviewC6 Overview2005 Overview, 2006, Overview, 2007 Overview2008 Overview, 2009 Overview, 2010 Overview, 2011 Overview

Clough, Eric

Eric Clough is the Director of Cadillac Interior Design at General Motors (2005 – present.)  A graduate of the University of Bridgeport, (Connecticut), Mr. Clough started his career with General Motors in 2000 as a design manager.  Since 2005, when he assumed the role of Director of Cadillac Interior Design, he has been responsible for leading design teams on multiple production vehicle programs (including the C6 Corvette).  Additionally, he is responsible for the development of the Cadillac interior aesthetic vision and brand character, as well as strategizing with partners outside of design to enable and integrate key technologies and features into Cadillac vehicles that support the brand vision. Corvsport Page References: 2005 Overview,

Coefficient of Drag

In fluid dynamics, the drag coefficient (commonly denoted as: cd, cx or cw) is a dimensionless quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object in a fluid environment such as air or water. It is used in the drag equation, where a lower drag coefficient indicates the object will have less aerodynamic or hydrodynamic drag. The drag coefficient is always associated with a particular surface area.

The drag coefficient of any object comprises the effects of the two basic contributors to fluid dynamic drag: skin friction and form drag. The drag coefficient of a lifting airfoil or hydrofoil also includes the effects of lift-induced drag.  The drag coefficient of a complete structure such as an aircraft also includes the effects of interference drag. Information courtesy of Wikipedia. Corvsport Page References: 1997 Overview

Cole, Edward N

(September 17, 1909 – May 2, 1977) was an automotive executive for General Motors.  He is the father of David E. Cole, Chairman of the Center for Automotive Research.

In his youth, Cole designed, built, and sold homemade radio sets, and as a teenager became a field representative for a tractor manufacturer.  He wanted to be a lawyer, but landed a part-time job in an auto parts store while attending Grand Rapids Community College.   He then enrolled in General Motors Institute, where he was a member of the Phi Kappa Epsilon (now Pi Kappa Alpha) Fraternity. Cole was such a good student, that he was offered a job at GM before he graduated.  He worked in engineering, rising to co-head a team (with Harry Barr) that developed the 1949 Cadillac V8.  He was briefly assigned to run a GM plant in Cleveland, Ohio, when Chevrolet general manager Tom Keating requested his assignment as chief engineer.

He became chief engineer of the Chevrolet Division in 1952.  His most important task was to develop a new engine for Chevy’s lineup to replace the stove-bolt six; that new engine was Chevrolet’s small-block V8.  He collaborated with Zora Arkus-Duntov to revitalize the weak-performing early Corvettes, and he also introduced engineering and design advancements in the Chevrolet car and truck lines between 1955 and 1962.

Cole retired from GM in 1974.  He died at age 67 in a crash during a storm while piloting his private twin-engine plane near Kalamazoo, Michigan, about 50 miles (80 km) south of where he was born. In 1998, Cole was posthumously inducted into the Corvette Hall of Fame. Edward Cole’s biographical content courtesy of Wikipedia.. Corvsport Page References: C1 Overview, 1955 Overview1957 Overview, 1960 Overview1962 Overview

Connecting Rods

In a reciprocating piston engine, the connecting rod or conrod connects the piston to the crank or crankshaft. Together with the crank, they form a simple mechanism that converts linear motion into rotating motion. Content courtesy of Wikipedia.


A type of automobile in which the roof can retract and fold away having windows which wind-down inside the doors, converting it from an enclosed to an open-air vehicle. Many different automobile body styles are manufactured and marketed in convertible form. Content courtesy of Wikipedia.

Cooksey, Wilmer

Corvette Plant Manager from February of 1993 until his retirement in March 2008. As the first African-American to earn the position and the man who held it the longest, he brought a life-long love of Corvette to the job. Believing in the phrase that “none of us are as smart as all of us,” he worked with the United Auto Workers Union and listened to customers to make the Corvette exceed the expectations of all who dreamed of having one someday.

Born in Fort Worth, Texas in 1942 Wil accomplished much in his life. He earned a Bachelor of Science degree in electrical engineering and a Masters degree in industrial engineering. He went to Officers Candidate School as well and served as a 1st Lieutenant in the U.S. Army where he was awarded the Bronze Star for his efforts. He is the winner of a number of honors including “Black Engineer of the Year–President’s Award”, “Achiever of the Year”, “Black Achiever in Industry” and now takes his place in the Corvette Hall of Fame. Content courtesy of National Corvette Museum. Corvsport Page Reference: 2008 Corvette

Corporate Average Fuel Economy

The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) are regulations in the United States, first enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1975, and intended to improve the average fuel economy of cars and light trucks (trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles) sold in the U.S. in the wake of the 1973 Arab Oil Embargo.

Historically, it is the sales-weighted harmonic mean fuel economy, expressed in miles per U.S. gallon (mpg), of a manufacturer’s fleet of current model year passenger cars or light trucks with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 8,500 pounds (3,856 kg) or less, manufactured for sale in the United States.

If the average fuel economy of a manufacturer’s annual fleet of vehicle production falls below the defined standard, the manufacturer must pay a penalty, currently $5.50 USD per 0.1 mpg under the standard, multiplied by the manufacturer’s total production for the U.S. domestic market. In addition, a Gas Guzzler Tax is levied on individual passenger car models (but not trucks, vans, minivans, or SUVs) that get less than 22.5 miles per US gallon (10.5 l/100 km). Content courtesy of Wikipedia. Corvsport Page References: 1978 Corvette1980 Corvette.


A compact automobile produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors for the 1960 through 1969 model years.  The Corvair has the distinction of having been the only American-made, mass-produced passenger car to feature a rear-mounted engine; The Corvair engine is an air-cooled, horizontally opposed, aluminum six-cylinder that produced 80 hp (60 kW) in 1960, but later versions produced as much as 180 hp (134 kW).  Corvair variant rebadged prototypes from Oldsmobile and Pontiac were built prior to the Corvair’s introduction, including the Pontiac Polaris, but weren’t brought to production.

The Corvair name originated in 1954 as a Corvette fastback show car.  Several Chevrolet concept cars of the period, including the Nomad, were based on Chevrolet’s sports car.  The Corvair was championed by Ed Cole, holding chief engineer and general manager positions at Chevrolet in the 1950s.

As the first American response to the growing popularity of small, lightweight imported cars, design began in 1956 with the first vehicles rolling off the assembly line in late 1959 for the 1960 model year.  Two Corvairs were tested at the Riverside International Raceway in Riverside, California, for 24 hours.  One car rolled over, but the other completed the drive using only one quart (0.95 L) of oil. The Corvair was introduced to the public early in 1960 at the Hal Roach Studios as actress Shirley Bonne unveiled the first model. Corvair content courtesy of Wikipedia.. Corvsport Page References: 1955 Overview, C2 Overview

Corvette Assembly Plant

The Corvette Assembly Plant in Bowling Green, Kentucky is one of the most sophisticated and computerized automobile assembly facilities in the world. To build a Corvette, over 1,025 employees teamed up with the 58 high-tech robots that assist in a variety of processes, from welding to painting.  The Bowling Green facility is Corvette’s third home since 1953. Since beginning production in June of 1981, it has become one of Kentucky’s most popular tourist attractions.  Corvette Assembly Plant tours are available. For dates and times, call (502) 745-8228. Reservations are required for groups of 10 or more.  The new National Corvette Museum, located near the assembly plant, opened its doors in September of 1994.  It is also attracting tourists to the area.  For more information, call 1-800-53-VETTE (83883) or (502) 781-7973.


A closed car body style (permanently attached fixed roof), the precise definition of which varies from manufacturer to manufacturer, and over time. Coupés are often hardtop sports cars or sporty variants of sedan (saloon) body styles, with doors commonly reduced from four to two, and a close-coupled interior (i.e., the rear seat placed further forward than in a standard sedan) offering either two seats or 2+2 seating (space for two passengers in the front and two occasional passengers or children in the rear). Before the days of motorized vehicles, the word referred to the front or after compartment of a Continental stagecoach. Content courtesy of Wikipedia.

Cowl Induction

The process of using a backward-facing scoop on/in the hood to draw in some of the cool, high-pressure air that collects on the windshield at speed.  Since engines make more power with cool outside air than the hot ambient air found in the engine bay, cowl induction utilizes these high-pressure pockets of air to feed cooler air into the engine.  Additionally, when idling or cruising at low speeds, cowl induction hoods go from air intake to exhaust.  Since performance cars tend to produce excess heat when idling, the ability to vent additional hot air from the engine is essential to long term engine performance and operation. Corvsport Page References: 1976 Corvette.


The part of an engine which translates reciprocating linear piston motion into rotation. To convert the reciprocating motion into rotation, the crankshaft has “crank throws” or “crankpins”, additional bearing surfaces whose axis is offset from that of the crank, to which the “big ends” of the connecting rods from each cylinder attach.  It typically connects to a flywheel, to reduce the pulsation characteristic of the four-stroke cycle, and sometimes a torsional or vibrational damper at the opposite end, to reduce the torsion vibrations often caused along the length of the crankshaft by the cylinders farthest from the output end acting on the torsional elasticity of the metal. Crankshaft content courtesy of Wikipedia..

Cross-Fire Injection

The Cross-Fire Injection (RPO L83) used two throttle bodies on top of the intake manifold.  Based on the Cadillac DFI unit, he computer to drive the system worked with GM’s Computer Command Control.   CCC had been refined in 1982 to the extent that it had the ability to make 80 adjustments per second, a significant improvement over the previous year’s 10 adjustments per second. These advancements provided a mere 10 extra horsepower for Corvette, but it was a gateway to get fuel injection back into the Corvette until Tuned Port Injection was ready for production.

Cross-Fire Injection was carried over for the extended production year of 1984, and another 5 hp entered the engine compartment, topping off the Cross-Fire’s engine horsepower rating at 205. History has proven that the Cross-Fire is a reliable design with the proper tuning and maintenance and, with some tweaking to the engine and fuel-delivery system, it is every bit as reliable as Tuned-Port Injection. Corvsport Page References: 1982 Corvette1984 Corvette.

Cunningham, Briggs

January 19, 1907 – July 2, 2003. An American entrepreneur and sportsman, who raced automobiles and yachts. Born into a wealthy family, he became a racing car constructor, driver, and team owner as well as a sports car manufacturer and automobile collector. Biographical content courtesy of Wikipedia. Corvsport Page References: 1960 Corvette

Curtice, Harlow H

August 15, 1893 – November 3, 1962. An American auto industry executive who led General Motors (GM) from 1953 to 1958. As GM’s chief, Curtice was selected as Man of the Year for 1955 by TIME magazine.

Curtice was born in Petrieville, Michigan. He joined General Motors at age 20, and rose through its AC Spark Plug division to head it by age 36, and made the division profitable during the Depression. Selected to head the Buick division of GM, he expanded its line and made it profitable in the 1930’s.

In 1948, Curtice became executive vice president of GM, and succeeded to the presidency in 1953 when GM president Charles Wilson became Secretary of Defense. With Curtice as president, GM became immensely profitable, and became the first corporation to have $1 billion in profits in one year.  In 1958, Curtice retired just after his 65th birthday. He suffered tragedy the following year when he accidentally shot and killed a friend while duck hunting. He died in 1962 at age 69. Harlow Curtice’s biographical content courtesy of Wikipedia..